CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK ASSESSMENT & PREVENTION CLINIC
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a term that describes a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels caused by atherosclerosis and thrombosis, which includes coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and aortic disease.
The risk of CVD is greater in men, patients with a family history of CVD, and in certain ethnic backgrounds such as South Asians. CVD risk is also greater in patients aged over 50 years and increases with age; patients aged 85 years and over are at particularly high risk. CVD has several important and potentially modifiable risk factors such as hypertension, abnormal lipids, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and psychosocial factors such as depression, anxiety, and social isolation. Low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake are also modifiable risk factors.
CVD is the most common cause of death in Europe accounting for 4.1 million deaths (2.2 mio in females, 1,9 mio in males) each year; corresponding to 47% of all deaths among women and 39% among men. IHD and cerebrovascular disease are the most common causes of cardiovascular death and IHD accounts for 1.67 million deaths corresponding to 17% and 18% of all deaths in men and women, respectively. Notably, more than twice as many men as women under the age of 70 years die from IHD
The age-adjusted CVD incidence has declined rapidly in almost all Western European countries with up to 30-50% reduction in the last 10-15 years in some countries. The decline is seen in both men and women and the majority can be attributed to improvements in primary and secondary prevention. However, not all risk factors show a beneficial trend. While smoking rates and population cholesterol levels have gone down, obesity and diabetes are increasing, causing some concern of whether the beneficial development seen in recent decades may not continue or even be reversed. Psychosocial stress, such as depression, anxiety and burn-out, which are now recognized as important contributors to CVD incidence and prognosis, are not declining. Also, disparities in CVD mortality regional, as well as national socioeconomic and other disparities remain high and even increasing . According to the World Health Organization, CVD is responsible for the majority of the global loss of disability adjusted life-years. The most important modifiable risk factors responsible for global CVD burden are – in order of ranking – systolic blood pressure, diet, LDL-cholesterol, smoking, obesity, and plasma glucose but also environmental risks linked to climate changes are among the top-ranking modifiable risk factors .
Aims of treatment
Dr Ubaid’s and his team aim in this dedicated clinic is to help prevent the occurrence of cardiovascular events by reducing modifiable risk factors, life style changes and drug treatment. To help achieve this aim, Dr Ubaid uses specific and validated risk assessment tools to estimate the individual’s risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and based on the result of these risk assessment tools and after a careful clinical assessment, he provides individualised advise accordingly.
DON’T LET OTHERS DIE NEEDLESSLY
Psychological risk factors
Psychological treatment should be considered in patients with mood and anxiety disorders and comorbid CVD; complex patients may require referral to mental health services for assessment and delivery of high-intensity or specialist treatments. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) should be considered for treatment in patients with depression and coronary heart disease. For guidance on prescribing of antidepressant drugs see Antidepressant drugs.
Heart Disease in Women
The death rate from cardiovascular diseases has decreased among men, but continues to increase in women. Cardiovascular disease is the number 1 killer of women causing 1 in 3 deaths each year.
Unfortunately, only 1 in 3 women are unaware that heart disease is the greatest health problem facing women today.